From my first lecture on C, I have been tinkering with side projects. I’ve done projects purely for exploration and entertainment, like a text-based adventure games. More recently I’ve done utility projects like a script to correct QIF formatted text. Recently I took on a project of a larger scope.
A while back,I read an article about a simulation of Machikoro. It is a ‘city-building game’, with rules that are easy to translate to code. In particular, the idea of using the simulator to ‘evolve’ an optimal strategy for the game captivated me. This was applying Machine-learning to a board game. I figured ‘I could do that’, and got to work. I encountered many distractions and set-backs, including a new baby. But this month I am pleased to admit that I have hit a milestone.
To support the ‘evolution’ aspect, I had to be able to run thousands of simulations in a reasonable amount of time. And after a bit over a month of concerted effort, I made it. I took my code from being a collection of classes to a library and simulator able to run 1000 games in 15 seconds.
I started back in December with classes to represent the deck of cards, a strategy for play, and a player state. The first step after this was to create a basic AI* to act upon the player state, and a given strategy. Borrowing from the article I had found, I decided to make the strategy more static. The decision logic reduced to constant decisions like ‘always yes’, or ‘always the cheapest available’. Then the AI only needed to use the Strategy to answer queries from the Game.
*Note: I am capitalizing and italicizing Class names for ease of identification.
After the simplified AI was complete, I got to work on the Game, which would simulate a single game. I decided that I wanted to use fluent APIs to instantiate a Game. I spend a good chunk of time to get these write, but it helped to make the main routine clearer. While I developed the Game, I decided to abstract the mechanisms of the game. This allowed me to separate the calculations from the sequence in which they are applied. I extracted the Engine to handle things like calculating which AI if any has won, or how much money this AI gets with this dice roll. Meanwhile the Game can manage whose turn it is, and who rolls the dice.
Testing both the Game and the Engine were somewhat arduous, but it was time well spent. I caught numerous bugs, and infinite loops before I ever ran a full simulation. Thankfully the Deck, State, and AI were all similarly tested. But I do wish that I had adhered more tightly to TDD. Instead I was very eager to getting the core functionality working.
Once these pieces were in place, I initiated my GitFlow, branching Master, Dev, and a new Feature. After pushing version 1.0 to Git, I started work on a new Feature, multi-game simulation! And while I tinkered with a Simulator, I realized that my fluent APIs had a bug. So I went back to Dev, and produced a Hotfix, which was merged into Master. From there I re-based the Feature, and continued my work.
With the Simulator, I needed to initialize a Game, but also to be able to run it N times, without interference from the previous rounds. So I had a two-pronged approach, I would accumulate the results of each game, and I would allow a Game to be reset. Learning from my forebears, I was sure to include randomization of the first-player when I reset. This removed the skewing of First-move advantage from my results. With the core Game working and fluently initialized, I was able to simple inject it into a Simulator to run.
The original simulator was able to run 1000 games in around 80 seconds. This performance is alright, but my personal dev box has 8 cores and the Simulator was maxing out just one. So to improve performance , I began to look into Python multi-threading. I found two similar flavors of concurrent operations in Python.
I elected to try Tasks first, as it seemed similar to Microsoft’s Task Parallel Library. Sadly I was not quite right about that. The BatchSimulator’s performance was terrible. For some reason it never used multiple cores. The original time for the BatchSimulator was 150 seconds for 1000 games. While it is likely this was user error, it was enough to discourage me from pursuing Tasks further.
So I turned to concurrents. And with concurrents, I had much better luck. In this case I spawned some sub-processes. I created the Coordinator to provide each fork with its own copy of the given Game, and an assigned number of games to run. Then each fork created its own Simulator, and ran the given number of games. Once each Simulator completed, the Coordinator would accumulate the results. After all the forks completed, the coordinator calculates the final statistics. This provides an overall winner. To make this easier, I extracted the SimulationResults class. I then added public methods for merging and calculations. By leveraging sub-processes, and existing code, the Coordinator was able to run at least 1000 games in ~16 seconds. Now I say at least, because the Coordinator divides the games evenly among the sub-processes. So to ensure that at least 1000 games are run, it must round up on the division of games per sub-process. But having more data is never a bad thing.
I was able to push and close this Feature recently, and I am very pleased with the progress. I went from single game simulation to rather performant 1000 game simulation in a month. I now have something to show for my ideas and my work. This milestone leaves me at a good break point. I can either continue working on the simulator to pursue the machine-learning angle. Or I can change focus and return to this project later. At the moment, I don’t know what direction I will turn. But I wanted to take a step back and look at what I have accomplished, and share my ‘geeking out’ a bit.
If anyone is interested in the source, you can find it here.